Individual Resilience
  • Ahern, N. R. (2006). Adolescent resilience: an evolutionary concept analysis.Journal of Pediatric Nursing21(3), 175-185. Retrieved from
  • Bonanno, G. A. (2004). Loss, trauma, and human resilience: have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events?American Psychologist 59(1), 20-28. American Psychological Association. Retrieved from
  • Castleden, M., McKee, M., Murray, V., & Leonardi, G. (2011). Resilience thinking in health protection. Journal of public health Oxford England33(3), 369-377. Retrieved from
  • Coutu, D. L. (2002). How resilience works. Harvard Business Review80(5), 46. Harvard Business School Press. Retrieved from
  • Davydov, D. M., Stewart, R., Ritchie, K., & Chaudieu, I. (2007). Resilience and mental health. Clinical Psychology Review30(5), 479-495. Elsevier Ltd. Retrieved from
  • Earvolino-Ramirez, M. (2007). Resilience: a concept analysis. Nursing Forum,42(2), 73-82. Blackwell Publishing Inc. Retrieved from
  • Freedman, R. (2008). Coping, resilience, and outcome. The American Journal of Psychiatry. Retrieved from
  • Hamel, G., & Välikangas, L. (2003). The Quest for Resilience. Harvard Business Review81(9), 52-63. Retrieved from
  • Kimhi, S., Hantman, S., Goroshit, M., Eshel, Y., & Zysberg, L. (2010). Elderly People Coping With the Aftermath of War: Resilience Versus Vulnerability. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry, (doi: 10.1097/JGP.0b013e31821106b3). Retrieved from
  • Olsson, C. A., Bond, L., Burns, J. M., Vella-Brodrick, D. A., & Sawyer, S. M. (2003). Adolescent resilience: a concept analysis. Journal of Adolescence,26(1), 1-11. Elsevier Science. Retrieved from
  • Rutter, M. (1987). Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms. (J. E. Rolf, A. Masten, D. Cicchetti, K. H. Nuechterlein, & S. Weintraub, Eds.)The American journal of orthopsychiatry57(3), 316-331. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from
  • Rutter, M. (2007). Resilience, competence, and coping. Child abuse neglect,31(3), 205-209. Elsevier Science. Retrieved from
  • Windle, G. (2010). What is resilience? A review and concept analysis. Reviews in Clinical Gerontology21(02), 152-169. Retrieved from
  • Luthar, S. S., Cicchetti, D., & Becker, B. (2000). The construct of resilience: a critical evaluation and guidelines for future work. Child Development71(3), 543-562. Wiley Online Library. Retrieved from
  • Masten, A. S. (2001). Ordinary magic. Resilience processes in development.American Psychologist 56(3), 227-238. American Psychological Association. Retrieved from
  • Masten, A. S., & Obradovic, J. (2006). Competence and resilience in development. (Lester Bm And Masten As And McEwen B, Eds.)Annals Of The New York Academy Of Sciences1094(1), 13-27. New York Academy of Sciences. Retrieved from

Community Resilience

  • Kimhi, S., & Shamai, M. (2004). Community resilience and the impact of stress: Adult response to Israelʼs withdrawal from Lebanon. Journal of Community Psychology32(4), 439-451. Retrieved from
  • Norris, F. H., Stevens, S. P., Pfefferbaum, B., Wyche, K. F., & Pfefferbaum, R. L. (2008). Community resilience as a metaphor, theory, set of capacities, and strategy for disaster readiness. American Journal of Community Psychology,41(1-2), 127-150. Springer. Retrieved from
  • Pickett, S. T. A., Cadenasso, M. L., & Grove, J. M. (2004). Resilient cities: meaning, models, and metaphor for integrating the ecological, socio-economic, and planning realms. (K. Otto-Zimmermann, Ed.)Landscape and Urban Planning69(4), 369-384. Elsevier. Retrieved from
  • Tobin, G. A. (1999). Sustainability and community resilience: the holy grail of hazards planning? Global Environmental Change Part B Environmental Hazards1(1), 13-25. Elsevier. Retrieved from

National Resilience

  • Barnett, M.D. (2004). Congress must recognize the need for psychological resilience in an age of terrorism. Families, Systems, & Health, 22, 64-66.
  • Chemtob, C.M. (2005). Finding the gift in the horror: Toward developing a national psychosocial security policy. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 10, 721-727.
  • Cacioppo, J.T., Reis, H.T., & Zautra, A.J. (2011). Social resilience. American Psychologist, 66, 43-51.
  • Amit, K., & Fleischer, N. (2005). Between resilience and social capital. In N. Friedland, A. Arian, A. Kirschnbaum, A. Karin & N. Fleischer (Eds.), The concept of social resilience [Hebrew] (pp. 83-107). Haifa: The Technion: Samuel Neaman Institute.
  • Obrist, B., Pfeiffer, C., & Henley, R. (2010). Multi-layered social resilience: A new approach in mitigation research. Progress in Development Studies, 10, 283-293.
  • Kimhi, S., & Eshel, Y. (2009). Individual and public resilience and coping with long-term outcomes of war. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, 14, 70-89.
  • Ben-Dor, G., Pedahzur, A., Canetti-Nisim, D., & Zaidise, E. (2002). The role of public opinion in Israel's national security. American Jewish Congress: Congress Monthly, 69, 13-15.
  • Elran, M. (2006). Israel's national resilience: The influence of the second intifada on Israel society. Tel Aviv University: Jaffee Center for Strategic Studies.
  • Friedland, A. Arian, A. Kirschnbaum, A. Karin & N. Fleischer (Eds.). The concept of social resilience (pp. 7-10). Haifa: The Technion. Samuel Neaman Institute.

Organizational Resilience

  • Ayling, J. (2009). Criminal organizations and resilience. International Journal of Law Crime and Justice37(4), 182-196. Elsevier. Retrieved from
  • Lengnick-Hall, C. A., Beck, T. E., & Lengnick-Hall, M. L. (2011). Developing a capacity for organizational resilience through strategic human resource management. Human Resource Management Review21(3), 243-255. Elsevier Inc. Retrieved from
  • Starr, R., Newfrock, J., & Delurey, M. (2003). Enterprise Resilience :: Managing Risk in the Networked Economy. Defense30(30), 70–79. BOOZ. ALLEN & HAMILTON. Retrieved from

Family Resilience


  • Black, K., & Lobo, M. (2008). A conceptual review of family resilience factors.Journal of Family Nursing14(1), 33-55. Sage Publications. Retrieved from
  • Bonanno, G., Brewin, C., Kaniasty, K., & LaGreca, A. (2010). Weighing the costs of disaster: consequences, risks, and resilience in individuals, families, and communities. Psychological Science in the Public Interest11(1), 1-49. SAGE Publications. Retrieved from
  • Hawley, D. R., & DeHaan, L. (1996). Toward a definition of family resilience: integrating life-span and family perspectives. Family Process35(3), 283-298. Retrieved from
  • McCubbin, H. I., & McCubbin, M. A. (1988). Typologies of Resilient Families: Emerging Roles of Social Class and Ethnicity. Family Relations37(3), 247-254. JSTOR. Retrieved from
  • Patterson, J. M. (2002). Understanding family resilience. Journal of Clinical Psychology58(3), 233-246. Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company. Retrieved from
  • Prw, F. (2003). Family .Resilience: A Framework for. Family Process42(I), 1-18. Retrieved from
  • Walsh, F. (2006). Strengthening family resilienceNew York (Vol. 36, p. p.). Guilford Press. Retrieved from

Ecological Resilience

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